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UPSC Essentials | Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 35) | UPSC Current Affairs News

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UPSC Essentials brings to you its initiative for the practice of Mains answer writing. Mains Answer Writing covers essential topics under static and dynamic parts of the UPSC Civil Services syllabus covered under various GS papers. This answer-writing practice is designed to help you as a value addition to your UPSC CSE Mains. Attempt today’s answer writing on questions related to topics of GS-3 to check your progress.

QUESTION 2

What is ‘Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana’? Discuss why expansion of solar energy is important for India.

General points on the structure of the answers

Introduction

— An introduction is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction.

— It may consist of basic information by giving some definitions from a trusted source and include authenticated facts.

Body

Festive offer

— It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the import of the question to provide rich content.

— The answer must preferably be written as a mix of points and short paragraphs rather than using long paragraphs or just points.

— Using facts from authentic government sources makes your answer more comprehensive. Analysis is important based on the demand of the question, but do not over analyse.

— Underlining keywords gives you an edge over other candidates and enhances presentation of the answer.

— Using flowcharts/tree-diagram in the answers saves much time and boosts your score. However, it should be used logically and only where it is required.

Way forward/ Conclusion

— The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach. However, if you feel that an important problem must be highlighted, you may add it in your conclusion. Try not to repeat any point from body or introduction.

— You may use the findings of reports or surveys conducted at national and international levels, quotes etc. in your answers.

Self Evaluation

— It is the most important part of our Mains answer writing practice. UPSC Essentials will provide some guiding points or ideas as a thought process that will help you to evaluate your answers.

THOUGHT PROCESS

You may enrich your answers with some of the following points

QUESTION 1: How does Artificial intelligence (AI) help in early cancer detection?

Introduction:

— Mumbai’s Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), India’s largest cancer hospital, is turning to artificial intelligence.

— The hospital has built a ‘Bio-Imaging Bank’ for cancer, which uses deep learning to create a cancer-specific tailored algorithm that aids in early-stage cancer identification.

Body:

What is a Bio-Imaging Bank?

— The project’s overarching goal is to create a robust repository encompassing radiology and pathology images, intricately linked with clinical information, outcome data, treatment specifics, and additional metadata.

— This comprehensive resource is strategically designed for the training, validation, and rigorous testing of AI algorithms.

— The project’s goal is to exceed the committed patient data for both cancer types by the end date. Along with database creation, the project includes training and testing multiple AI algorithms on the collected data to address medically relevant tasks such as screening for lymph node metastases, nucleus segmentation and classification, biomarker prediction (for example, HPV in oropharyngeal cancer and EGFR in lung cancer), and therapy response prediction.

How does AI help in early cancer detection?

— AI contributes significantly to cancer detection by emulating the human brain’s information processing.

— In cancer diagnosis, AI examines radiological and pathological pictures, learning from large datasets to identify distinct traits linked with specific cancers.

— This technology facilitates early detection by identifying tissue changes and potential malignancies.

— Comprehensive imaging generates longitudinal patient data, aiding in understanding behaviour, treatment response, disease recurrence, and overall survival.

— This data is used in AI and machine learning protocols to create predictive models for cancer survival and to determine treatment aggressiveness.

— Creating a tumour picture bank entails segmenting and annotating photographs, highlighting tumours, detecting various traits, and categorising them as malignant, inflammatory, or edematous.

— Biopsy results, histology, immunohistochemistry reports, and genetic sequences are correlated with pictures and clinical data to create various algorithms.

— This approach allows TMH to develop algorithms for different tumours, assess treatment responses directly from images, and avoid unnecessary chemotherapy for predicted non-responders, offering clinical utility.

(Source: How AI can help detect cancer and why India’s biggest cancer treatment hospital is utilising it by Rupsa Chakraborty)

Points to Ponder

Can AI help reduce cancer fatalities in the future?

Bio-Imaging Bank

Related Previous Year Questions

Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does AI help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of AI in healthcare? (2023)

What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector? (2020)

QUESTION 2: What is ‘Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana’? Discuss why expansion of solar energy is important for India.

Introduction:

— It is a scheme that will involve installing solar power systems at rooftops for residential consumers.

— The scheme would help not only reduce electricity bills of the “poor and middle class”, but also push India’s goal of becoming self-reliant in the energy sector.

Body:

— According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s website, India’s solar power installed capacity has reached approximately 73.31 GW as of December 2023. Meanwhile, rooftop solar installed capacity is estimated to be around 11.08 GW by December 2023.

— In terms of total solar capacity, Rajasthan is at the top with 18.7 GW. Gujarat is at the second position with 10.5 GW. When it comes to rooftop solar capacity, Gujarat tops the list with 2.8 GW, followed by Maharashtra with 1.7 GW.

— Solar power has a major share in the country’s current renewable energy capacity, which stands at around 180 GW.

Why is an expansion of solar energy important for India?

— According to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) most recent World Energy Outlook, India is predicted to see the greatest increase in energy demand of any country or region in the world during the next three decades. To meet this demand, the country would need a reliable source of energy and it can’t be just coal plants.

— India has doubled down on its coal production in recent years, it also aims to reach 500 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030.

Rooftop Solar Programme

— The scheme which was launched in 2014 aims to expand India’s rooftop solar installed capacity in the residential sector by providing Central Financial Assistance — the financial assistance to the eligible projects as per MNRE Guidelines — and incentives to DISCOMs (distribution companies).

— The programme’s goal is to increase rooftop solar installed capacity to 40 GM by March 2026 and it is currently in its second phase.

Conclusion:

— Moreover, “surplus solar power units generated from the rooftop solar plant can be exported to the grid as per the metering provisions issued by respective SERCs (State Electricity Regulatory Commissions)/JERCs (Joint Electricity Regulatory Commission).

— The consumer can receive monetary benefits for the surplus exported power as per the prevailing regulations.

(Source: PM Modi launches new rooftop solar power scheme: What it is, why it is needed)

Points to Ponder

Other Renewable Energy

International Solar Alliance (ISA)

Related Previous Year Questions

Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November, 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)? (2021)

Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (2021)

Previous Mains Answer Practice

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 1 (Week 33)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 1 (Week 34)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 2 (Week 33)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 2 (Week 34)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 34)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 33)

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